Tag Archives: Fukanzazengi

Monkey-mind horse-will

Copyright©2021 Misaki C. Kido

Dōgen’s Chinese Poems (47)
Verse from Dharma Hall Discourse 348

Like a Lotus in Flames
348. Dharma Hall Discourse

The sitting cushions of the seven buddhas are now about to be worn through;
The sleeping stick of my former teacher [Tiantong Rujing] has been transmitted.
Eyes and nose should be upright and straight,
Headtop reaching up to the blue sky, and ears aligned above the shoulders.[1]

「示衆」(示衆)
七佛蒲團今欲穿 (七佛の蒲團今、穿なんとす、) 
先師禪板已相傳 (先師の禪板、已に相傳す。)
眼睛鼻孔可端直 (眼睛鼻孔、端直なるべし)
頂對青天耳對肩 (頂きは青天に對し、耳は肩に對す)

— • —

This is verse 46 in Kuchūgen and Dharma Hall Discourse (上堂, jōdō) 348 in Volume 5 of Eihei Kōroku. This verse in Manzan’s version is the same as in Monkaku’s version. After reciting this verse in his discourse, Dōgen added a short comment.

At this very time, how is it?
After a pause Dōgen said: Do not control the monkey mind or horse will. Make an effort like a lotus in fire.

正当恁麼時、又作麼生。良久云、莫管他心猿意馬。功夫猶若火中蓮。
(正当恁麼の時、又た作麼生。良久して云く、管すること莫れ、他の心猿と意馬と。功夫は猶お火中の蓮の若し。)

348. Dharma Hall Discourse

This Dharma Hall Discourse was given in the ninth lunar month in 1249. The ninth lunar month is the last month of autumn, called nagatsuki (長月); this is an abbreviation of yonagatsuki (夜長月), which means the month in which night is getting longer. In the solar calendar this would be somewhere between the end of September and the beginning of November. Heat is over but it is not yet too cold, so it is a good time for zazen practice. In this jōdō, Dōgen Zenji first introduces the verse, and after a pause he makes a short comment that clearly shows a characteristic of his zazen practice.

The sitting cushions of the seven buddhas are now about to be worn through;
The sleeping stick of my former teacher [Tiantong Rujing] has been transmitted.

At Dōgen’s monastery Eiheiji, monks devoted themselves to zazen practice so much that their cushions are almost worn through. He says that their cushions (zafu) have been transmitted from Vipaśyin Buddha, who is the first of the seven buddhas of the past (before Shakyamuni Buddha) as we count back through all of the buddha-ancestors. Of course, it is not the cushion but zazen that has been transmitted. The phrase about sitting cushions being worn through comes from the expression “habuton (破蒲團),” literally, “breaking a cushion.” For example, in the section concerning Changqing Huileng (Chōkei Eryō長慶慧稜, 854–932) of Shōbōgenzo Gyōji (行持下, Continuous Practice, part 2), Dōgen praises Changqing, a disciple of Xuefeng (雪峰, Seppō), saying:

Master Huileng of Changqing was a venerable master [in the assembly of] Xuefeng. He studied and practiced going back and forth between Xuefeng and Xuansha for almost twenty-nine years. During those years and months, he broke twenty sitting cushions. Among todays’ people who love zazen, Changqing is considered to be the excellent example of yearning for the ancient [style of practice]. Although there are many who adore him, few of them are equal to him.[2]

“The sleeping stick” is zenpan (禅板). It is a flat wooden board about 1.7 feet long and 2 inches wide, and there is a hole in the upper part. This is used to support the sitter’s body when they sleep in the zazen posture. Originally in China, they put a cord into the hole and tied the rope behind their seat to support the body. In Japan, a sitter placed a zenpan on their hands and supported their chin. Zenpan is mentioned in case 20 of Blue Cliff Record; Lung Ya’s Meaning of the Coming from the West:

Lung Ya asked Ts’ui Wei, “What is the meaning of the Patriarch’s coming from the West?”
Wei said, “Pass me the meditation brace.”
Ya gave the meditation brace to Wei; Wei took it and hit him.
Ya said, “Since you hit me I let you hit me. In essence, though, there is no meaning of the Patriarch’s coming from the West.”

I have never seen a zenpan in use today. It seems that Dōgen Zenji received a zenpan from Tiantong Rujing. This means that Dōgen’s sangha practiced zazen in the style of Rujing transmitted by Dōgen.

Eyes and nose should be upright and straight,
Headtop reaching up to the blue sky, and ears aligned above the shoulders.

In the third and fourth lines of the verse, Dōgen describes their zazen posture simply, and in accordance with what he wrote in Fukanzazengi and Shōbōgenzo Zazengi:

Sit in upright posture. Do not lean either to the left or right, either to the front or back. The line connecting your ears should be parallel with the line connecting your shoulders without fail. Your nose should be in line with your navel. Your tongue should be placed against the roof of your mouth. Breathe through your nose. Your lips and jaw should be closed. Keep your eyes open, neither too wide nor too little.[3]

Thus, the verse is a simple description of their zazen transmitted from the buddhas and ancestors through Dōgen Zenji. After reciting this verse, Dōgen asks the monks, “At this very time, how is it?” It is not clear if the monks offered some answers or not. In Eihei Kōroku, the monks’ reaction to Dōgen’s presentations is not recorded at all. Dōgen keeps silence for a while and offers a final comment:

Do not control the monkey mind or horse will. Make an effort like a lotus in fire.
莫管他心猿意馬。功夫猶若火中蓮。

I think this comment clearly expresses Dōgen’s Zazen practice. “The monkey mind or horse will” is a translation of shin’en iba (心猿意馬), shin (心) is mind, en (猿) is monkey, i (意) is will, or more commonly in Buddhist terminology, the sixth sense organ “mind.” Ba (馬) is horse. In this case, shin and i are not different. In Tenzokyōkun, Dōgen writes:

This principle is a certainty that you still do not yet clearly understand, only because your thinking scatters like wild birds (horses) and your emotions scamper around like monkeys in the forest. If those monkeys and birds (horses) once took the backward step of inner illumination, naturally you would become integrated. This is a means whereby, although you are turned around by things, you can also turn things around. Being harmonious and pure like this, do not lose either the eye of oneness or the eye that discern differences.[4]

He does not say that we should control our thinking mind; instead, he says, “If those monkeys and birds (horses) once took the backward step of inner illumination, naturally you would become integrated.” “Taking the backward step of inner illumination” (回光返照退歩, ekō henshō taiho) and “becoming integrated” (打成一片, dajō ippen)[5] are the same expressions Dōgen uses in Fukanzazengi, Universal Recommendation of Zazen. This is the opposite of what was said by Yuanwu, the Rinzai Zen Master who made The Blue Cliff Record: “Let the mind-monkey completely die and kill the mind-horse. (死却心猿殺却意馬).”[6]

In Shōbōgenzo Sanjūshichihon Bodaibunpō (三十七品菩提分法), Dōgen says this about right thinking in the eightfold noble path:

An ancient buddha [Yaoshan] said, “Think of not-thinking. How do you think of not-thinking? Beyond thinking.” This is right thinking, right cerebration. Breaking through the zazen cushion is right cerebration.”[7]

古佛いはく、「思量箇不思量底、不思量底如何思量、非思量。」これ正思量正思惟なり。破蒲團これ正思惟なり

In Dōgen’s practice, zazen of hishiryō (非思量, beyond thinking) which includes both thinking (思量, shiryō) and not-thinking (不思量, fushiryō) is the foundation of “right thinking” and “mindful work” in the kitchen and other places.

— • —

[1] (Dōgen’s Extensive Record volume 5, Dharma Hall Discourse 348, p.312) © 2010 Taigen Dan Leighton and Shohaku Okumura, Dōgen’s Extensive Record. Reprinted by arrangement with Wisdom Publications, Inc., www.wisdompubs.org.
[2] This is Okumura’s unpublished translation. Another translation is in Treasury of the True Dharma Eye: Zen Master Dōgen’s Shobo Genzo (edited by Kazuaki Tanahashi), p.368.
[3] Okumura’s unpublished translation.
[4] This is the translation in Dōgen’s Pure Standards for the Zen Community: A translation of Eihei Shingi (translated by Taigen Leighton and Shohaku Okumura, SUNY, 1996), p.37-p.38. In a note, it says, “Instead of ‘birds,’ the common rufubon edition has ‘horses.’” (p.51)
[5] Literally, “becoming one-piece.”
[6] This is Okumura’s translation of the sentence from Recorded Sayings of Zen Master Yuanwu (圓悟佛果禪師語録). I cannot find another English translation.
[7] This is Okumura’s translation. Another translation is in Treasury of the True Dharma Eye: Zen Master Dōgen’s Shobo Genzo (edited by Kazuaki Tanahashi, Shambhala), p.682.

— • —

Translation and commentary by Shōhaku Okumura Roshi.

— • —

For further study:

> More of Dōgen Zenji’s Chinese Poems


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Dōgen’s question

© Nevit Dilmen [CC BY-SA 3.0]

Dogen’s Chinese Poem (14)

「與禅人」

Given to a Zen Person

Essence and expression are penetrating, before we glimpse the ground.
Arriving at this, who can be at peace?
Too bad the echo of wind in the pines doesn’t reach a deaf ear.
Dew from bamboo is repeatedly dropping in front of the moon.[1]

宗説倶通瞥地先 (宗説倶に通ず瞥地の先)
誰人到此可安然 (誰人か此に到って安然たるべき)
松風愧響聾人耳 (松風響きに愧ず聾人の耳)
竹露屡零納月邊 (竹露屡零ちて月邊に納る)

This is verse 14 in Kuchugen and verse 55 of volume 10 of Eihei Koroku (Dogen’s Extensive Record). This is one of the 3 poems titled “Given to a Zen Person” in Kuchugen. This poem in Menzan’s version has slight differences in lines 2, 3, and 4:

到此解參玄  (誰か能く此に到って參玄を解す):
Arriving at this, who can understand attending the profundity.
松風響聾人耳 (松風空しく響く聾人の耳):
The echo of wind in the pines is in vain to a deaf ear
竹露屡零月邊  (竹露屡かに零つ月の邊):
Dew from bamboo is repeatedly dropping by the cool moon.

 

Essence and expression are penetrating, before we glimpse the ground.
Arriving at this, who can be at peace?

“Essence and expression” is a translation of 宗説 (shu-setsu). 宗 (shu) is the original truth or reality beyond thinking, discriminating, conceptualizing, to which buddhas and ancestors awaken. 説 (setsu) is talking, expressing, explaining, teaching, or expounding the original reality.

When Shakyamuni Buddha completed awakening, he discovered the original reality, the Dharma, but he hesitated to share it with others. He thought it was too subtle, profound, fine, and difficult to perceive for people who are lost in desire, cloaked in darkness. But after being requested three times by the God Brahma, he made up his mind to teach. He said, “The gateway of ambrosia [deathlessness] is thrown open for those who have ears to hear.” What the Buddha taught using language to the five monks was the first turning of the dharma wheel. The Buddha’s act of teaching to lead others to the truth is 説 (setsu).

“To glimpse the ground” is a translation of 瞥地 (becchi) which means to take a glance at the truth. 瞥 (betsu) means to get a glance; that is, to see with half an eye, not thoroughly seeing. Dogen Zenji uses this expression in the beginning of Fukanzazengi (Universal Recommendation of Zazen):

Even if you are proud of your understanding, are enlightened in abundance, and obtain the power of wisdom to glimpse the ground of buddhahood; even if you gain the Way, clarify the mind, resolve to pierce heaven, that is only strolling on the border of the buddha way. You are still, almost always, lacking the vivid path of emancipation.

As the result of our personal efforts, we understand and feel, “I have some awakening experience to the truth,” but according to Dogen, such a result is just strolling on the border of the buddha way. It is not really entering the buddha way; something is still lacking.

In Genjokoan, Dogen Zenji says,

When the Dharma has not yet fully penetrated into body and mind, one thinks that one is already filled with the dharma. When the dharma fills the body and mind, one thinks that something is [still] lacking.

Here in this poem, Dogen is saying that even prior to such a small result of personal efforts, the essence and its expressions are always penetrating. Basically, what he is saying is the same with the several lines in the very beginning of Fukanzazengi:

Originally, the Way is complete and universal. How can we distinguish practice from enlightenment? The Vehicle of Reality is in the Self. Why should we waste our efforts trying to attain it? Still more, the Whole Body is free from dust. Why should we believe in a means to sweep it away? On the whole, the Way is never separated from where we are now. Why should we wander here and there to practice?

However, this does not mean we can be relaxed and at peace without making any effort. In the next paragraph of the Fukanzazengi, Dogen says we should continue to practice following the examples of Shakyamuni Buddha and Bodhidharma. Their practice is not for the purpose of gaining something.

Too bad the echo of wind in the pines doesn’t reach a deaf ear.
Dew from bamboo is repeatedly dropping in front of the moon.

松風 (shofu, or matsu-kaze) refers to soughing of the wind through pine trees. In Japanese poetry this expression was often used to express the solitary and serene scenery of a seashore. The sounds of the wind through the pine trees is the Buddha’s voice. However, unless our ears are open, we don’t hear the message from the Buddha.

竹露 (chikura, or take no tsuyu) is a drop of dew on a blade of bamboo leaves. When the temperature goes down below the dew point, water vapor in the air condenses to form droplets on the surface of the bamboo leaves. On each and every drop of dew, the moonlight is reflected. However, when sun rises and the temperature goes up, the dew drops will evaporate and disappear. Within a tiny drop of dew, boundless moon light is reflected, and yet it does not last long. As Dogen writes in Genjokoan, this is the expression of each and every phenomenal being including ourselves. This is the way all things are existing, not only for special enlightened people as the result of their personal efforts. However, if our eyes are not open, we don’t see the significance of Buddha’s radiant light.

According to Dogen’s biography, Kenzeiki, while he was studying at the Tendai monastery on Mt. Hiei as a novice monk, he had a question, “Both the exoteric and esoteric teachings say that, from the beginning [human beings are endowed with] dharma-nature. [We are] naturally the self-nature [buddha-]body. If so, why did all buddhas in the three times have to arouse [bodhi-]mind to seek awakening?” I think what he is saying in this poem is the answer to that question. We need to continue to study and practice and keep our eyes and ears open to see and hear the Buddha’s voice and body expressed in each and every phenomenal thing. By doing so, we don’t get anything, but we put ourselves on the ground of original reality.

— • —

[1] (Dogen’s Extensive Record 10-55, p.624) © 2010 Taigen Dan Leighton and Shohaku Okumura, Dōgen’s Extensive Record. Reprinted by arrangement with Wisdom Publications, Inc., www.wisdompubs.org.

— • —

Translation and commentary by Shōhaku Okumura Roshi.

> More of Dōgen Zenji’s Chinese Poems


Copyright 2019 Sanshin Zen Community

Dew on the Grass

Eternity within impermanence

dew-on-grass_larger

朝日待つ asahi matsu The dewdrops on a blade of grass,
草葉の露の kusaba no tsuyu no waiting for the morning sunrise,
ほどなきに hodo naki ni [are existing] only for a short while.
急ぎな立ちそ isogina tachi so Autumn wind in the field!
野辺の秋風 nobe no akikaze “Don’t begin to blow in a hurry.”

A dewdrop is beautiful and yet stays only for a short time. There are expressions such as 露珠 (roshu), a dewdrop that is as beautiful as a jewel and 露華 (roka), dewdrops shining in the sunlight like flowers. Our life, that is precious but impermanent without perpetual self-nature, is also compared to a dewdrop (露命, romei), dewdrop-like life. Dogen Zenji used this expression several times, for example, in Fukanzazengi (Universal Recommendation of Zazen):

Furthermore, your body is like a drop of dew on a blade of grass; your life is like a flash of lightening. Your body will disappear soon; your life will be lost in an instant.1

While I stayed at Valley Zendo in western Massachusetts, I worked harvesting blueberries at a blueberry farm for a few weeks in the summer for several years. In the early mornings, the blueberry field was so beautiful. Each and every blueberry and the leaves on the plants were covered with dewdrops. In the morning sun, the many acres of the blueberry field looked like a carpet of bright jewels. However soon after sun rose a little higher and the air got warm, all of the dewdrops completely disappeared.

In this waka, Dogen describes dewdrops on a blade of grass on an early autumn morning. The dewdrops stay only for a short while on a blade of grass until the sun rises. When the cold autumn wind blows, even the grass on which the dewdrops stay will wither. Seeing this scenery of the change of season, we human beings feel loneliness and sadness, and have some sympathy or even compassion toward the dewdrops and the grasses. We see our lives are the same as theirs. Soon or later we will all disappear, and we don’t know when.

This is the same reality as Kamo no Chomei wrote about in the Hojoki, which I introduced previously. However in the case of Dogen, this is not a pessimistic view of life. He sees beauty and dignity of life in impermanence. As Dogen wrote in Shobogenzo Genjokoan, every dewdrop reflects the boundless moon light. He sees eternity within impermanence. He also writes in Tenzo Kyokun (Instruction for the Cook):

“Although drawn by the voices of spring, do not wander over spring meadows; viewing the fall colors, do not allow your heart to fall. The four seasons cooperate in a single scene; regard light and heavy with a single eye.”2

We see that spring will come again and plants, flowers, insects, birds and all living beings will become active again. We don’t need to be overwhelmed by the cold autumn wind.

​—–

1 Okumura’s unpublished translation.
2 Dogen’s Pure Standards for the Zen Community: A translation of Eihei Shingi (Taigen Leighton & Shohaku Okumura, SUNY), p.49

— • —

Translation and commentary by Shōhaku Okumura Roshi

> Other Waka by Dōgen


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Beyond Our Grasp

A waka suggesting reality outside of thought

如何なるか Ika naru ka
仏と謂うと Hotoke to iu to If someone asked me,
人問はば Hito towaba “What is Buddha?”
かいやか下に Kaiya ga shita ni [I would say], “There is ice
つららいにけり Tsurara i ni keri underneath the kaiya.”

beyond-3300362-220x275

© Can Stock Photo / Foto-Ruhrgebiet

The first half of this waka is not difficult at all. This is a simple question asking what Buddha is. But the second half that is the answer to this question, is difficult because we are not sure what “kaiya” refers to.

It is said that this is an old word used from the time of the Manyōshu (the oldest collection of waka poems compiled in 9th century).

According to the traditional commentaries, there are three possibilities:

1. 鹿火屋 (deer fire hut)
2. 蚊火屋 (mosquito fire hut)
3. 蚕屋 (silkworm hut)

Ya means “roof” or some kind of a structure like a hut or a shack.

The first possibility is a hut to make a fire in the night, meant to chase deer away and protect vegetables or grains.

Mosquitos and other insects will come to the fire. There is the following proverb: “The summer insects fly to their death in a flame of their own accord.”

A silkworm hut needed to be kept warm, so that sericulturists made fire whenever necessary.

Steven Heine translated this word as “a mosquito net.” Rev. Rosan Yoshida’s translation is “silkworm hut.” All these three words have something to do with fire and heat.

Kaiya” for us is like the Sanskrit word “saindhava” which has four different meanings: salt, a cup, water, and a horse. Dōgen Zenji wrote one fascicle of Shobogenzo OsakusendabaKing Seeks Saindhava.” The servant needed to know exactly what his king was asking when he said, “Give me the saindhava.”

If the king asked saindhava when he wanted to wash his face, the servant gave him some water. If the king asked saindhava during a meal, the servant gave him some salt. If the king asked saindhava after eating, the servant offered a cup for some drink. If the king asked saindhava when he wanted to go out, the servant brought a horse.

The wise servant could know what the word meant depending upon what the king was doing at that moment. However, we don’t know even what “kaiya” meant, because we don’t know what Dōgen was seeing or thinking when he wrote this waka. We need to guess.

In modern Japanese, “tsurara” refers to an icicle, a hanging piece of ice formed by freezing of dripping water. Both Heine and Yoshida translated this word as “icicle.” But according to a dictionary of Japanese archaisms, in classic Japanese before Tokugawa period (1603-1867), “icicle” was called “taruhi (垂氷, hanging ice)” and “tsurara” refered to “ice” in general in the horizontal surface of water. I don’t understand how ice can be formed underneath some kind of a hut or a shack?

In Fukanzazengi, Dogen says, “In doing zazen, the koan manifests itself; it cannot be ensnared.” In this case, “koan” refers to the reality before or beyond human thinking.
—Shōhaku Okumura

Anyway, here are two opposite things that cannot be together: fire/heat and ice. The traditional commentaries interpreted this waka poem showing interpenetration of ji (事) and ri (理), or hen (偏) and sho (正), that refer to the absolute reality and the conventional reality, the principle and the phenomena, etc. They referenced a quote by Zen Master Caoshan Benji (Sozan Honjaku, 840-901) saying, “Within fire, cold ice is formed (燄裡寒氷結).” This expression by Caoshan is a part of his verses on the Five Ranks.

Today’s commentator, Akio Matsumoto, who is not a Soto Zen master or scholar, but rather an expert of Japanese literature, introduced a waka poem composed by Fujiwara Kinzane (1043 – 1107) included in a collection of waka, Horikawa Hyakushu (One Hundred Waka Poems in the Era of Emperor Horikawa) in which almost the same expressions appears: “kaiya ga shita mo koori shinikeri (かひ屋がしたも/氷しにけり、Ice is formed even underneath the kaiya).”

Koori” is common word for ice. According to Matsumoto, in this waka, “kaiya” was a device for catching fish. A bundle of twigs of trees was put under water. Small fish stayed in the bundle of twigs, then people lifted it up and caught the fish. In the winter, a roof was put above such a device to prevent the surface of the water from freezing. The roof was called “飼屋, kaiya.”

Kinzane described the scenery of an exceptionally cold winter day, the temperature was much colder than usual and even underneath the roof (kaiya), water was frozen and people could not catch any fish.

I like this interpretation better than the traditional one. In his waka poems, when Dōgen describes the scenery of seasons, he usually does not refer to any phenomena that is not possible to see. If we interpret in the first way, “ice in the fire,” this is something we cannot see in the phenomenal world. Then this waka becomes an expression of a philosophical idea. “Ice in the fire” becomes an expression of the concept of interpenetration of opposite things. I don’t think that is what Dōgen would do at least in his waka poems. His expressions of nature in his waka are pretty much a sketch of what he sees.

Then what does this waka mean if we adopt the second interpretation?

Kaiya” is a device to catch fish invented by human beings. However, it is too cold to get fish. The man-made device does not work when the temperature is colder than expected.

I think, Dōgen is saying that Buddha is something beyond what human beings can hold with our thinking mind. In Fukanzazengi, Dōgen says, “In doing zazen, the koan manifests itself; it cannot be ensnared.” In this case, “koan” refers to the reality before or beyond human thinking. “Cannot be ensnared” literally means that there is no way to catch it using net and cage (籮籠, raro), that is a device to catch the bird (reality) and a cage to keep it as our possessions.

I think this waka is saying that Buddha is something beyond all human agency to grasp because we are a tiny part of it. Dōgen likes the expression from the second chapter of the Lotus Sutra, “Only Buddha together with Buddha.” We have to open our hands of human thinking and let go. Then the Buddha that is beyond human thinking is revealed.

Translation and commentary by Shōhaku Okumura Roshi

> Other Waka by Dōgen


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