Tag Archives: Agama

The Tail of the Elephant

Dogen’s Waka 47

Tail of the elephant

(c) Can Stock Photo / frenta; (c) Can Stock Photo / MattiaATH

世の中は Yo no naka wa [People in] this world are like
まどより出づる Mado yori izuru the elephant going out the window.
きさの尾の Kisa no o no Only its tail remains
ひかぬにとまる Hikanu ni tomaru without being pulled [from inside].
さはり斗りぞ Sawari bakari zo [Such a tiny thing becomes] the obstacle
[to renouncing the mundane world].

“An elephant going out a window” is an unusual image.

Menzan changed kisa 象, elephant, to ushi 牛, water buffalo and added the title “A Water Buffalo Passes Through a Window” to this waka, as if Dogen Zenji wrote this poem as a comment on the 38th case of the Mumonkan (Gateless Barrier). The Mumonkan was compiled in 1228, the year before Dogen left China to return to Japan.

Shinchi Kakushin (1207 – 1298) is a Rinzai Zen master who received the Bodhisattva Precepts from Dogen and later went to China — received inka from Wumen Huikai (Mumon Ekai, 1183 – 1260), the compiler of the Mumonkan — and returned to Japan in 1254.

Dogen had passed away in the previous year and probably did not have a chance to read the Mumonkan. According to it, this koan was the saying of Song Dynasty Rinzai Zen master Wuzu Fayuan (Goso Hoen, ? – 1104), and therefore Dogen might have known it. And yet, Dogen never mentions it in his writings nor includes it in the collection of 300 koans in the Shinji Shobogenzo.

In most of the older versions of the collection of Dogen’s waka before Menzan, the animal mentioned in this waka is kisa (elephant) and not ushi (water buffalo). Menzan also changed sawari (obstacle) to kokoro (the mind).

I suppose that these changes were Menzan’s mistakes. The meaning of this poem as a whole became completely different from Dogen’s original.

The eminent modern Rinzai Zen Master Zenkei Shibayama Roshi said in his comments on the case, “This tail is nothing else than the formless form of Reality.”1 Shibayama Roshi also quotes this waka by Dogen Zenji. The translation of this waka in his teisho is as follows:

This world is but the tail of a buffalo passing through a window.
The tail is the mind,
Which knows neither passing nor not-passing.

The last line is Shibayama Roshi’s addition to make the meaning of ‘the mind’ clear. This translation is based on Menzan’s version. It seems to me that Menzan revised Dogen Zenji’s waka in the way that made it compatible with the interpretation of case 38 of the Mumonkan in Rinzai tradition. Traditional commentaries in the Soto Zen tradition have also been based on Menzan’s revised version of this waka. Until the second half of the 20th century, Dogen Zenji had been understood based on the interpretations by Tokugawa period Soto Zen masters.

The story of an elephant going out of a window appears in a sutra entitled The Story of Anathapindada’s Daughter Receiving Ordination (Taishō Tripiṭaka: T0130_.02.0845c09).

Anathapindada was a millionaire who donated the land of Jetavana Vihara to Shakyamuni. In the story, when Kasyapa Buddha, the sixth of the seven buddhas in the past, was alive, there was a king. The king had ten unusual dreams and asked Kasyapa Buddha what the dreams meant. In the king’s first dream, an elephant tried to get out of a room through a window; although rest of its body got out, only its tail remained without being pulled through. Kasyapa Buddha said that this dream was about a situation in the future after Shakyamuni Buddha had passed away. There will be some people, either men or women, who will have left home to become monks, but even though they have done this their minds will still be influenced by greedy attachments to fame and profit regarding mundane things and they will not be able to attain deliverance.

In this waka, Dogen wants to say that there are many people in his time who have left home to become Buddhist monks, but many of them still have some attachment to fame and profit and therefore they are not able to be released from the triple-world of samsara.

In Shobogenzo Keiseisanshoku (Sounds of Valley Streams and Colors of Mountains) Dogen says:

Moreover, we should not forget the aspiration we aroused when we first sought the Buddha Way. What I want to say is that when we first aroused bodhi-mind, we didn’t seek the Dharma for the sake of others and we abandoned fame and profit. Without seeking fame and profit, we simply aspired to attain the Way. We never expected to be venerated and receive offerings from the king and ministers. However, such causes and conditions for [the desire for fame and profit] are present now. [Fame and profit] are not what we expected originally or what we sought after. We did not expect [to be] involved in entanglements with human and heavenly affairs. And yet foolish people, even if they have aroused bodhi-mind, soon forget their original aspiration and mistakenly expect offerings from human and heavenly beings. And when they receive them, they are delighted, thinking that the virtue of the Buddha-dharma has been realized. When kings and ministers come frequently to take refuge, [such people] think this is the manifestation of their Way. This is one of the demons afflicting the practice of the Way. Even though we should not forget the compassionate mind [toward such people], we should not be delighted [when such people venerate us]. 1

In this waka, Dogen uses the story of the elephant’s tail from the Agama to criticize many of the Japanese Buddhist monks of his time. In Shobogenzo Zuimonki he said the same thing as in Keiseisanshoku, for example in section 6-21 of the Choenji version (5-20 of Menzan’s version):

Nowadays, some people seem to have renounced the world and left their families. Nevertheless, when examining their conduct, there are those who are not yet true home-leavers. As a home-leaver, first of all, we must depart from our [ego-centered] self as well as from [desire for] fame and profit. Unless we become free from these, even if we urgently practice the Way as if extinguishing a fire enveloping our head, or devote ourselves to diligent practice as hard as [people who] cut off their hands or legs, it will only be a meaningless trouble that has nothing to do with renunciation. 2

This is not a problem only about Indian monks after Shakyamuni’s death and Japanese monks at the time of Dogen. In the United States today, Buddhist institutes are not as large as in India or medieval Japan, so I don’t think people become Buddhists monks/priests for the sake of fame and profit. Still, we may make the same kind of mistakes on much smaller scale in our practice.

When we compete with other people and want to consider we are better than others, or we want other people to consider us as superior practitioners to them, or if we study Buddhist teachings to show others that we have better knowledge, our motivation is not genuine bodhi-mind. We are moved by our ego-centered desire to be winners in the competition. This is the way we ourselves create samsara within our own Buddhist practice. That is the tiny tail of the elephant that binds us to samsara.

— • —

1 This is Okumura’s unpublished translation. Another translation is in Master Dogen’s Shobogenzo, Book 1 (Gudo Nishijima & Chodo Cross) p.92
2 This is Okumura’s unpublished translation of the Choenji version. Another translation is in Shobogenzo-zuimonki: Sayings of Eihei Dogen Zenji recorded by Koun Ejo (Shohaku Okumura, Sotoshu Shumucho) p.191

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Copyright 2017 Sanshin Zen Community

Beyond Causality

Poem on the ancient words of seven Buddhas

Seven buddhas

Seven Buddhas carved into cave rock near Aurangabad, India between 600 and 700 AD.

安名尊 Ana touto How venerable!
七の仏の nana no hotoke no Seven Buddhas’
ふる言は furu kotoba Primordial words are!
まなぶに六つの Manabu ni mutsu no By studying them,
道に越えたり michi ni koetari We go beyond the six realms.

“Seven Buddhas” refers to the Buddhas in the past, of which Shakyamuni is the seventh. Indian Buddhists thought there were Buddhas before Shakyamuni, and the idea of seven Buddhas in the past (Skt. saptatathagata) appears in Pali Nikaya and Chinese Agama, before Mahayana Buddhism.

“The primordial words” is a translation of “furu-kotoba” literally old or ancient words that, in this case, refers to the verse of admonitions commonly taught by the seven Buddhas. The most well known verse is by Kasyapa Buddha, the sixth of the past Buddhas: “Do not what is evil. Do what is good. Keep your mind pure. This is the teaching of Buddha.” This verse also appears in the Dhammapada.

In the Dhammapada, there is another verse saying,

“Some people are born on this earth; those who do evil are reborn in hell; the righteous go to heaven; but those who are pure reach Nirvana.”

The traditional understanding of these verses is that the first two lines on not doing evil and doing good are about transmigration within samsara based on causality, and the third line about keeping your mind pure is the teaching of going beyond samsara and entering Nirvana.

Dōgen wrote a fascicle entitled Shobogenzo Shoaku Makusa (Not Doing Evil). In the very beginning of the fascicle, he quotes this verse and says,

“This [teaching], as the general precept of the ancestral school from the Seven Buddhas, has been authentically transmitted from former buddhas to later buddhas, and later buddhas have received its transmission from former buddhas. It is not only of the Seven Buddhas: it is the teaching of all buddhas.”

He also wrote,

“This being so, when we study the supreme unsurpassable true awakening (anuttara-samyak-sambodhi), when we hear the teachings, do practice, and verify the result, it is profound, far reaching, and wondrous. We hear of this supreme awakening, sometimes following a teacher and sometimes following the sutras. At the beginning, it sounds, ‘Do not do any evil’. If we don’t hear ‘do not do any evil’, it is not the true Dharma of buddhas; it must be a suggestion of demons. We should know that, that which says, ‘Do not do any evil’ is the true dharma of buddhas.”

In this passage, we see that Dōgen interprets the teachings in the verse as integration of the two sets of teachings: worldly dharma (Skt. laukika) causality based on good and evil actions, and the ultimate awakening beyond six realms (Skt. lokottara). Bodhisattvas go beyond samsara and yet, they don’t escape from samsara, just as if a lotus flower blooms beyond the surface of muddy water and yet the root is still in muddy water.

— • —

Translation and commentary by Shōhaku Okumura Roshi
Sources:
The Dhammapada (translated by Juan Mascaro, Penguin Books, 1973), p.62 & p.53

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Copyright 2016 Sanshin Zen Community

Whipping up Bodhi-mind

Poem on degrees of responsiveness

Four Horses

駟の馬 Yotsu no uma
四の車に yotsu no kuruma ni Those who do not ride on
乗らぬ人 noranu hito the four horses and
真の道を makoto no michi wo the four carriages,
いかでしらまし ikade shiramashi how could they know the true Way?

In Shobogenzo Shime (Four Horses), Dogen Zenji quotes the teachings about the four kinds of horses from the Agama and the Mahayana Parinirvana Sutra.

In the Agama, the Buddha taught monks that there are four kinds of horses. The first kind is most sharp-witted, startled when it sees the shadow of the whip, and understands what the rider wants. The second kind is startled when the whip touches its hair. The third kind is surprised after the whip touches its flesh. The fourth kind wakes up only after [the whip] has penetrated to the bone. [1]

Then the Buddha explained that the first horse is like the person who realizes impermanence when he hears that someone in another village died; the second horse is like the person who sees impermanence when he hears that someone in his village died; the third horse is like the person who realizes impermanence when his parent dies; the fourth horse is like person who doesn’t realize impermanence until he faces his own death.

We all see the reality of impermanence and various kinds of sufferings in human life, but we often do not arouse bodhi-mind and ride on the carriages of the Dharma.
—Shohaku Okumura

According to the Mahayana Parinirvna Sutra, the first horse is like the person who accepts the Buddha’s teaching when he hears of [the suffering of] birth; the second horse is like the person who accepts the Buddha’s teaching when he hears of birth and aging; the third horse is like the person who accepts the Buddha’s teaching when he hears of birth, aging and sickness; the forth horse is like the person who accepts the Buddha’s teaching when he hears of birth, aging, sickness, and death.

Riding on four horses means to see impermanence and realize the suffering of life, to accept the Buddha’s teachings and arouse the bodhi-mind.

The four carriages refer to the vehicles of sheep/sravaka, of deer/pratyekabuddha, of ox/bodhisattva, and of great white ox/one Buddha vehicle, that appear in the third chapter of the Lotus Sutra. Riding on the four carriages means to study and practice any teachings or traditions of Buddhism. Dogen does not exclude the first two or three vehicles and say only the last one is right.

We all see the reality of impermanence and various kinds of sufferings in human life, but we often do not arouse bodhi-mind and ride on the carriages of the Dharma. Then how can we know the true Buddha Way?

When Sawaki Roshi was eight years old, one day a middle-aged man died of a stroke in a prostitute’s room. He saw the dead man in bed with his wife beside him, crying, “Why did you die in a place like this, of all places?” This scene stunned Sawaki Roshi into a deep appreciation of impermanence and the impossibility of keeping secrets. Even though his parents and his uncle who adopted him had died before this experience, Sawaki Roshi hadn’t felt impermanence so intensely. The whip of this experience penetrated to his bone. Later he escaped from his step-parents’ home and became a monk.

Once, after Sawaki Roshi became a well-known master, he was invited to give a talk for a group of priests near his home-town. He talked about his experience of seeing impermanence when he was eight years old. One of the priests in the group found that several decades ago, one of his temple’s family members died like that. At the time, the strict abbot of the temple got angry about how he died, did not give the person the dharma name. When Sawaki Roshi heard that, he wrote the current abbot of the temple that the person was a great teacher for him who saved him and made him become a monk, and asked the priest to give the person a dharma name.

— • —

Translation and commentary by Shohaku Okumura Roshi
[1] Nishijima & Cross’s translation is in Master Dogen’s Shobogenzo, book 4, p.128.

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Copyright 2016 Sanshin Zen Community