Category Archives: Dōgen Poems

Tathāgata Zen and Ancestral Zen  

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Dōgen’s Chinese Poems (54)

A Pitiful Condition
335. Dharma Hall Discourse

「示衆」 (示衆)
如來禪祖師禪   (如來禪・祖師禪、)
古不傳東土妄傳 (古傳えず東土妄りに傳う。)
迷執虚名何百歳 (虚名に迷執すること何百歳、)
可怜末世劣因縁 (怜れむべし末世の劣因縁。)

Tathāgata Zen and Ancestral Zen
were not transmitted by the ancients, but only transmitted falsely in the Eastern Land (China).
For several hundred years some have been clinging with delusion to these vain names.
How pitiful is the inferior condition of this degenerating world.[1]

— • —

This is verse 53 in Kuchūgen and Dharma Hall Discourse (上堂, jōdō) 335 in Volume 4 of Eihei Kōroku. Dōgen Zenji only recited this verse as the dharma discourse without making any explanatory speech, or else his speech was not recorded. This verse in Manzan’s version is slightly different from Monkaku’s version in the second line:

古不傳妄傳 (古は傳えず、妄りに傳う)
were not transmitted in the ancient times, but only transmitted falsely in these days.

A Pitiful Condition

This dharma discourse was given during the summer practice period in 1249. Taigen Leighton and I took this title for the discourse from the fourth line. In Shōbōgenzō and Eihei Kōroku, Dōgen Zenji often criticizes various aspects of the Zen he encountered in Song Dynasty China. This verse is about one of the problems he found. He does not agree with the distinction between Tathāgata Zen and Ancestral Zen.

Tathāgata Zen is a translation of Nyorai Zen (如来禅). This expression is used in the Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra (Nyū-Ryōgakyō, 入楞伽経). According to scholars, this Mahāyāna sutra was created around the 4th century CE in India. Lanka refers to Sri Lanka; avatāra means “to enter,” so that the title means “Entering Sri Lanka.” In this Sutra, somehow, Shakyamuni Buddha is invited by the king, visits Sri Lanka, and answers his questions. Basically, the teaching in this Sutra is a combination of the consciousness-only theory of the Yogacara school and the theory of Tathāgata-garbha. There are three Chinese translations of this sutra. The first one was translated by Guṇabhadra (求那跋陀羅, 394–468). This sutra gave inspiration to the early Zen (Chan) practitioners in China. According to a Zen text, Bodhidharma said that Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra was the only reliable sutra he found in China and transmitted it together with his robe to the second ancestor, Huike (Eka, 慧可). The group later called the Northern School (so-called by the Southern School) named their own lineage Lanka School (Ryōga-shū 楞伽宗) and made a collection of biographies of their ancestors entitled, Ryōga-shiji-ki (楞伽師資記, Record of Master and Disciple in [the Transmission of] the Lanka). This text was unknown until it was found in the Tunghuang cave in 20th century. In this text, Guṇabhadra. the translator of the Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra, was recorded as the first ancestor of their school, before Bodhidharma.

In the Lankavatara Sūtra, meditation (dhyana, chan, zen) practice was categorized into four kinds. In the D. T. Suzuki’s English translation, these are:

(1) the Dhyana practised by the ignorant,
(2) the Dhyana devoted to the examination of meaning,
(3) the Dhyana with Tathāta (suchness) for its object, and
(4) the Dhyana of the Tathāgatas.[2]

The first kind refers to the kinds of meditation practice by Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas: to see no-self, to see the body of the self is impermanent, suffering and impure, to attain the state of no-thought. The second kind refers to the meditation practice in the Mahāyāna that sees the meaning of the various aspects of emptiness — not only one’s own self, but also all dharmas are empty. The third kind refers to the meditation to see tathāta (suchness, emptiness) itself as its object, and go beyond all kinds of discrimination. The final kind, the Dhyana of the Tathāgata is having entered the stage of Tathāgatahood, and abiding in the triple bliss which characterizes self-realization attained by noble wisdom, devoting oneself for the sake of all beings to the accomplishment of incomprehensible works.

Zen people thought the first kind is the practice of the lesser vehicle, the second and third are meditation practices based on Mahāyāna teaching on seeing emptiness of the self and objects, and seeing suchness itself. The fourth practice is not only for developing oneself but also benefitting others.

Sometime after the separation between the Northern School and the Southern School occurred, Guifeng Zongmi (Keihō Shūmitsu, 圭峯宗密, 780–841) wrote Chan Prolegomena (Zengenshosenshū-tojo, 禅源所詮集都序). Zongmi was an important Fayen School (Kegon-shū, 華厳宗)master who also claimed himself a Zen master in the lineage of Shenhui (神会), one of the disciples of the sixth ancestor, Huineng. In his work, Zongmi categorized Zen into five kinds depending on their profundity:

(1)   Outsider Zen (Gedō-zen, 外道禅)
(2)   Common-person Zen (Bonpu-zen, 凡夫禅)
(3)   Inferior-vehicle Zen (Shōjō-zen, 小乗禅)
(4)   Great-vehicle Zen (Daijō-zen, 大乗禅)
(5)   Highest-vehicle Zen (Saijōjō-zen, 最上乗禅) also named Tathāgata-purity            Zen (Nyorai-shōjō-zen, 如来清浄禅)

Zongmi said that the fifth kind of Zen is the highest and is the Zen transmitted by Bodhidharma. “The practitioner all-at-once identifies with buddha substance.”[3]

These two texts were the origin of the name Tathāgata Zen (Nyorai Zen, 如来禅). Zen practitioners used this name of Zen to show that their practice was the highest, beyond other meditation practices based on Mahāyāna teachings such as the Tientai (天台) system of meditation practice, described in Tientai Zhiyi’s The Great Cessation-and-Contemplation (Makashikan, 摩訶止観).

Tathāgata Zen and Ancestral Zen
were not transmitted by the ancients, but only transmitted falsely in the Eastern Land (China).

In the Southern School, specifically Mazu’s lineage called the Hangzhou School (Kōshū-shū, 洪州宗), people thought that Tathāgata Zen was still based on the teachings in the scriptures; their practice was transmitted outside teaching (kyōge-betsuden, 教外別伝) and called Ancestral Zen (Soshi Zen, 祖師禅). For example, there is a dialogue between Yanshan Huiji (Gyōsan Ejaku, 仰山慧寂, 807–883) and Xiangyan Zhixian (Kyōgen Chikan香巌智閑, ? – 898), two major disciples of Guishan Lingyou (Isan Reiyū, 潙山霊裕, 771–853):

The master (Yanshan) asked Xiangyan, “Younger brother! What is your view these days?”
Xiangyan said, “I cannot say anything after all.”
Then he composed a verse:

Last year’s poverty was not yet poverty.
This year’s poverty is poverty in its true sense.
Last year, I didn’t have a room to stick a gimlet,
This year, I don’t even have the gimlet.

The master replied, “You only attained Tathāgata Zen, not yet Ancestral Zen.”[4]

From this dialogue, it seems that Yanshan meant that Tathāgata Zen is going beyond discrimination, and seeing emptiness beyond any conceptual thinking without using language, and that Ancestral Zen is freely functioning in a concrete way without discrimination, such as shouting, hitting with a stick, kicking, or raising a finger, a fist, a whisk, etc.

Later in Song Dynasty China, many Zen people thought their practice in the ancestral way was transmitted outside teaching, without relying on any written teachings, so that their practice of Ancestral Zen was superior to Tathāgata Zen. Dōgen Zenji does not appreciate such a Zen tradition.

For several hundred years some have been clinging with delusion to these vain names.
How pitiful is the inferior condition of this degenerating world.

“For several hundred years” means from the time of Yanshan and other eminent Zen masters in the Tang dynasty, which is sometimes called the golden age of Zen, to Dōgen’s day. When Dōgen had traveled to China in his youth, after about two years of Zen practice at Chinese Zen monasteries and meeting with several Zen masters, he still had not found the true teacher he was looking for. In 1225, right after his Japanese master Myōzen passed away, Dōgen met Tiantong Rujing and became his disciple. Dōgen kept a record of his questions and Rujing’s answers in Hōkyōki. The first question in this record is about the separate transmission outside the teaching, and the second question is about Zen masters’ instruction of just raising a fist, holding up the whisk, or hitting with a stick, not allowing their students to utilize thinking mind for measuring things.[5]

Receiving Rujing’s instruction, he was convinced that such a separation between Tathāgata Zen and Ancestral Zen was not a genuine teaching. In various fascicles of Shōbōgenzō, he repeatedly criticizes such common teachings of Zen. For example, in Shōbōgenzō Bukkyō (Buddha Sutra, 仏経), he wrote:

Nevertheless, for the last one or two hundred years or so, in great Song China, all reckless stinky skin-bags have declared, “We should not keep even the ancestral masters’ words and phrases. Much less should we see the teachings within the sutras and use them forever. We should simply make our body-minds like withered trees or dead ashes. We should be like broken ladles or bottomless buckets.” In this way people have carelessly become like non-buddhists or heavenly demons.[6]

“This degenerating world,” is a translation of masse (末世), which means the age of the final dharma, the third of the three ages of the dharma–the age of true dharma, the age of semblance dharma, and the age of the final dharma. It is said that in the age of the final dharma, only Buddhist teachings remain, no one practices, and no awakening is possible. Japanese people believed that the period of the final dharma began in 1052. Dōgen did not accept this theory, as he wrote in Bendōwa:

In the Teaching Schools they focus on various classification systems, yet in the true teaching of Mahāyāna there is no distinction of True, Semblance, and Final Dharma, and it is said that all who practice will attain the Way.[7]

However, here, he uses this expression in the common meaning. Anyway, to me, this verse seems not as poetic as others composed by him.

— • —

[1] (Dōgen’s Extensive Record volume 4, dharma hall discourse 335, p.304) © 2010 Taigen Dan Leighton and Shohaku Okumura, Dōgen’s Extensive Record. Reprinted by arrangement with Wisdom Publications, Inc., www.wisdompubs.org.
[2] See The Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra, Translated from the Sanskrit by Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki. Prajna Press, Boulder, pp. 85–6.
[3] Zongmi on Chan (Jeffrey Lyle Broughton, Columbia University Press, 2009), p. 104.
[4] This is Okumura’s unpublished translation. Another translation is in Records of the Transmission of the Lamp vol. 3 (by Randolph S. Whitefield), p.83.
[5] See Enlightenment Unfolds: The Essential Teachings of Zen Master Dōgen (edited by Kazuaki Tanahashi, Shambhala, 1999), p.4.
[6] This is Okumura’s unpublished translation. Another translation is in Treasury of the True Dharma Eye: Zen Master Dōgen’s Shobo Genzo (edited by Kazuaki Tanahashi), p.541.
[7] Translation by Shohaku Okumura & Taigen Daniel Leighton in The Wholehearted Way, (Tuttle Publishing, 1997), p.37.

— • —

Translation and commentary by Shōhaku Okumura Roshi.

— • —

For further study:
See Dōgen’s Extensive Record.

> More of Dōgen Zenji’s Chinese Poems


Copyright©2022 Sanshin Zen Community

Pull Your Own Nose and Lift the Ancient Kōan  

Copyright©2022 Misaki C. Kido

Dōgen’s Chinese Poems (53)

Pull Your Own Nose and Lift the Ancient Kōan
Dharma Hall Discourse Beginning the Summer Practice Period [1247]

「結夏」(結夏)
掘空平地搆鬼窟 (空を掘り地を平らげ鬼窟を搆う。)
臭惡水雲撥溌天 (臭惡の水雲、撥ねて天に溌ぐ。)
混雜驢牛兼佛祖 (混雜す、驢牛と佛祖と。)
自家鼻孔自家牽 (自家の鼻孔、自家牽く。)

Digging a hole in the sky, leveling the earth, and constructing a demon’s cave,
The monk’s bad-smelling waters splatter, pouring over the heavens.
Donkeys and cows mix together with buddhas and ancestors.
Pull yourself by your nose.[1]

— • —

This is verse 52 in Kuchūgen and Dharma Hall Discourse (上堂, jōdō) 238 in Volume 3 of Eihei Kōroku. Dōgen Zenji recited this verse at the beginning of the dharma hall discourse and made a short speech. This verse in Manzan’s version and Monkaku’s version are the same.

The speech he gave after the verse is:

Tell me, how shall we today lift up the ancient kōan from two thousand years ago?
After a pause Dōgen said: A copper head and iron brow keep practicing. A wooden ladle and a clump of soil clap their hands and laugh.

Pull Your Own Nose and Lift the Ancient Kōan

This is the dharma hall discourse on the occasion of the beginning of the summer practice period on 15th day of the 4th month in 1247. Dōgen Zenji and his sangha moved from Kōshōji in Fukakusa, near Kyoto to Echizen (presently Fukui Prefecture) in 1243. The buildings of the new monastery Daibutsuji were built in 1244 and they moved in the winter of 1244. In 1245, they had the first summer practice period (ango) at Daibutsuji. In 1246, the temple name was changed to Eiheiji, and Pure Standards for Temple Administrators (知事清規 Chiji Shingi) was presented during the summer practice period. So it was in this year, that the sangha began to practice following the traditional system based on the Chinese pure regulations (清規 shingi). The sangha was divided into two groups. One group stayed in the monks’ hall and concentrated on practice, following The Model for Engaging the Way (弁道法 Bendoho); another group worked in the administration building, kuin (庫院), which included the kitchen, storeroom, and various administrative offices to support the practice.

“Pull Your Own Nose” in the title is from the fourth line of this verse, and “Lift the Ancient Kōan” is taken from Dōgen’s speech after the verse. The ninety-day summer practice period is an ancient kōan given by the Buddha in which each monk is studying and practicing using their karmic self in order to study the self that is empty and interconnected with all beings. Another way to understand the title is that the empty and interconnected self pulls and trains the self-centered karmic self.

Digging a hole in the sky, leveling the earth, and constructing a demon’s cave,
The monk’s bad-smelling waters splatter, pouring over the heavens.

“Digging a hole in the sky, leveling the earth,” is a translation of kukku heichi (掘空平地). The sky and earth mean the entire world. Monastic practice is not simply a means to develop monks’ individual bodies and minds, but allows us to discover the emptiness and interconnectedness with the entire heaven and earth. This expression might also mean that monks work with emptiness (空), the ultimate truth, oneness of all beings and also work with the earth (地), one of the four great elements, the concrete, the conventional truth, multiplicity. Digging emptiness is making it concrete, and leveling the earth is to see oneness. By seeing and working with both sides, the monks can act in the middle way between discrimination and beyond discrimination.

“Constructing a demon’s cave” is kō kikutsu (搆鬼窟). By working with all beings in heaven and earth, the monks construct a demon’s cave. A demon’s cave is an abbreviation of kokusan kikutsu (黒山鬼窟), a demon’s cave in the black mountain, commonly used in the negative meaning—that is, being caught up with discriminative thinking or clinging to non-discrimination. For example, in Case 25 “The Hermit of Lotus Flower Peak Holds up His Staff” in the Blue Cliff Record, there is a sentence in Yuanwu’s commentary, “As soon as you make a comparative judgement, you’re in the demon cave of the mountain of darkness making your living.”[2]

In Shōbōgenzō Ikka myōju (一顆明珠, One Bright Jewel), Dōgen quotes Xuansha’s dialogue with a monk, in which Xuansha used this expression in the common, negative way.

Once a monk asked, “I have heard that you said that the entire ten-direction world is one bright jewel. How can this student (I) understand it?”
The master said, “The entire ten-direction world is one bright jewel. What is the use of understanding it?”
The next day, the master asked the same monk, “The entire ten-direction world is one bright jewel. How do you understand it?”
The monk said, “The entire ten-direction world is one bright jewel. What is the use of understanding it?”
The Master said, “I know that you are making a livelihood inside the demon’s cave in the black mountain.”[3]

In his comments on this dialogue, Dōgen changed the meaning of the expression and said, “Therefore, forward steps and backward steps within the demon’s cave in the black mountain are nothing other than the one bright jewel.” Thinking using the dharma-eye, which sees both discrimination and beyond discrimination, is one bright jewel that is the entire ten-direction world. In the verse from Kuchūgen, he used this expression in the same way. Seeing both the ultimate truth and the conventional truth, we use our thinking based on beyond-thinking during the practice period.

“The monk’s bad-smelling waters splatter, pouring over the heavens.” This is an ironical expression, probably taken from Tiantong Rujing’s verse for the Librarian:

The Librarian
Excreted directly from the mouth of old bandit Gautama,
A lot of donkey-dung (sutras), and horse manure (Vinaya texts) as well!
Rolling them all into a ball, turning them around,
The bad-smell pervades the heavens, annoying people in the sahā-world.[4]

As many Zen masters did, Rujing sometimes used “dirty words” to express the Buddha’s awakening and teachings. The most famous example might be case 21 of the Gateless Barrier (無門関, Mumonkan), Yummen’s Dried Shit-Stick.[5]

Rujing’s verse is about the manager of the storage for scriptures. Within a building on the monastery grounds, there was a huge rotary bookcase in which scriptures (tripiṭaka) were stored. There was a belief that, when a person turned the bookcase once, there was merit produced, just the same as reciting the entire Buddhist library. Probably this was for air circulation, keeping the bookcase cool and dry to protect the books.

Rujing said that the Buddhist scriptures were like the excrement of the old bandit Gautama, that is, Shakyamuni Buddha. By turning the scriptures, the bad-smell pervades the entire world. The word “bad-smell (臭悪, shūaku)” is used in the description of the smell from the process of a corpse decaying; this was used as a method for the contemplation of impurity (不浄観, fujōkan).

Dōgen Zenji sometimes used this kind of expression. There is a story that an old Pure Land Buddhist master once listened to Dōgen’s dharma discourse, and he was stunned when Dōgen used the expression, “a dried sit-stick.” This master declared that Zen was a terrible teaching, which says the buddha is a dried shit-stick. Hearing that, Dōgen said, “I want to cry, that even such a respectable master said such a foolish thing.”

In this verse, Dōgen says that the monks splash their bad-smelling water over the entire heaven. This is a reference to the actual practice of monks during the practice period; they have to use their karmic body and mind and yet practice the Buddha’s practice. Of course, there are tons of beautiful phrases to praise the Buddha’s awakening and teachings, and monks’ practice. I think Zen masters tried to avoid using such flowery, hackneyed words, and tried to make their audience or readers wake up.

Donkeys and cows mix together with buddhas and ancestors.
Pull yourself by your nose.

Donkeys and cows refer to the monks’ karmic bodies and minds. Yet in their practice, based on zazen and on following the Buddha’s teachings and on the proscriptions of the pure standards (shingi), buddhas and ancestors manifest themselves within the monks’ practice.

“Pull yourself by your nose” is an expression Dōgen also took from Rujing. This is from a verse on the eighth of the ten ox-herding pictures titled, “Forgetting both Person and Ox,” in which only the round circle is there and nothing is in it. In the first two lines of his poem for this picture, Rujing said, “One’s own nostril is drilled by the self, and one’s own rope is pulled by the self.”[6] This means that the both the person and the ox are the self. The self makes a hole in the ox’s nostril and the self puts the rope in the hole and pulls the rope to guide the self. That is the monks’ practice during the practice period. I think this is the same as Dōgen’s expression jijuyū-zanmai, and the same as Kōdō Sawaki Rōshi’s expression, “self selfing the self.” The monks make a vow to practice during the ninety-days practice period; they make a hole in their nostril and pull their own nostril to guide themselves.

— • —

[1] Dōgen’s Extensive Record Volume 3, Dharma Hall Discourse 238, p.238) © 2010 Taigen Dan Leighton and Shohaku Okumura. Reprinted by arrangement with Wisdom Publications, Inc., www.wisdompubs.org.
[2] The Blue Cliff Record (translation by Thomas Cleary, Shambhala, 1977), p.168.
[3] Okumura’s translation.
[4] This is Okumura’s translation from “Recorded sayings of Tiantong Rujing” in Study on Zen Master Tiantong Rujing (天童如浄禅師の研究)by Genryu Kagamishima (Shunjusha, Tokyo, 1983), p. 380.
[5] In Zen Comments on the Mumonkan (Zenkei Shibayama, Harper & Row, 1974), p.154, the case reads:
           A monk asked Unmon, “What is Buddha?”
           Unmon said, “A shit-stick!” (Kanshiketsu!)
In Master Yunmen: From the Record of the Chan Master “Gate of the Clouds” (translation by Urs App, Kodansha America,1994), p.126, the dialogue is:
           Someone asked, “What is Shakyamuni’s body?”
           The master said, “A dry piece of shit.”
[6] 自家の鼻孔自家穿つ。自家繩索自家牽く。

— • —

Translation and commentary by Shōhaku Okumura Roshi.

— • —

For further study:
See Dōgen’s Extensive Record.

> More of Dōgen Zenji’s Chinese Poems


Copyright©2022 Sanshin Zen Community

Spring Crimson Penetrating All Minds  

Copyright©2022 Misaki C. Kido

Dōgen’s Chinese Poems (52)
Spring Crimson Penetrating All Minds

發心畢竟二何窮 (發心・畢竟二つ何ぞ窮めん。)
如是二心佛祖風 (是の如きの二心は佛祖の風なり。)
忘自度他功徳力 (自を忘れ他を度す功徳力。) 
家郷春色桃華紅 (家郷の春色、桃華紅なり)

In both arousing the mind and the ultimate stage,
how do we practice fully?
Engaging these two minds like this
is the style of buddha ancestors.
Forgetting self and freeing others
with the strength of merit and virtue,
My homeland’s spring color, peach blossom crimson.[1]

— • —

This is verse 51 in Kuchūgen and Dharma Hall Discourse (上堂, jōdō) 487 in Volume 7 of Eihei Kōroku. This verse in Manzan’s version and Monkaku’s version are the same.

Spring Crimson Penetrating All Minds

This is the title we gave the dharma hall discourse in the English translation of Eihei Kōroku, Dōgen’s Extensive Record. There is no such title in the original. This discourse consists only of this verse, without any speech by Dōgen. It is not certain if Dōgen gave a speech which was not recorded with this verse, or if for some reason he only recited this verse.

This discourse was given next to Dharma Hall Discourse 486, given on Buddha’s Parinirvāṇa Day (the fifteenth day of the second month in 1252), and before discourse 489, on the occasion of Closing the Fireplace (on the first day of the third month of that year). It is getting warmer, and heating is not necessary anymore, so they remove the fireplace from the monks’ hall. The second half of the second month in the lunar calendar is around the end of March or beginning of April in the solar calendar. It is the time peach blossoms and other flowers begin to bloom. Traditionally in Japan, the third day of the third month has been celebrated as Peach Festival, or Girl’s Day.

This verse has something to do with what Dōgen wrote in Shōbōgenzō Hotsubodaishin (発菩提心, Arousing Bodhi-mind), the fourth of the twelve-fascicle collection of Shōbōgenzō. Dōgen scholars suppose that these twelve fascicles were written in Dōgen’s later years.

In both arousing the mind and the ultimate stage,
how do we practice fully?
Engaging these two minds like this
is the style of buddha ancestors.

The first line here and the third line (described below) of the complete verse are taken from a verse in the Mahāyāna Parinirvāṇa Sutra. Dōgen quotes the verse in Shōbōgenzō Hotsubodaishin (Arousing Bodhi-mind):

Kāśyapa Bodhisattva praised Shakyamuni Buddha with a verse saying,
[First] arousing [bodhi-]mind and the [mind of bodhisattvas in the] ultimate stage are not different;
between these two [stages of] mind, the former is more difficult [to arouse].
[It is the mind of] ferrying across others before oneself.
For this reason, I [respectfully] make prostrations to [those] who have first aroused [bodhi-]mind.
When they first arouse [bodhi-mind], they are already the teachers of human and heavenly beings.
They are superior to sravakas and pratyekabuddhas.
Such arousing [bodhi-]mind surpasses the triple world.
Therefore, it can be called the unsurpassable.[2]

It seems that Dōgen did not so much appreciate the theory of buddha-nature discussed in the Parinirvāṇa Sutra; but it does seem that he appreciated this verse from it, particularly the line “ferrying across others before oneself (自未得度先度他, ji-mitokudo-sendo-ta).” Probably this is the reason that in Dharma Hall Discourse 383, he recommends reading the Parinirvāṇa Sutra together with the Lotus Sutra and the Prajna Paramita Sutras.

In this verse, Kāśyapa Bodhisattva says to Shakyamuni Buddha that the bodhi-mind we first arouse and the bodhi-mind of the most developed bodhisattvas who are about to attain buddhahood are one and the same mind. And yet, for us beginners as immature bodhisattvas arousing the bodhi-mind to save others before ourselves is definitely more difficult than for the more developed bodhisattvas who have been practicing for many kalpas, life after life. Therefore, Kāśyapa Bodhisattva praises and makes prostrations to the immature bodhisattvas who have first aroused the mind to save others before themselves.

In his comments on this verse, Dōgen says:

Arousing [bodhi-]mind is to arouse the mind of ferrying others before oneself for the first time. This is called first arousing bodhi-mind. After having aroused this mind, we further meet with innumerable buddhas and make offerings to them, we see buddhas and hear dharmas, and further arouse bodhi-mind. It is like adding frost on the snow.

The so-called ultimate stage refers to the awakening of the fruit of buddhahood. When we compare anuttara-samyak-sambodhi (ultimate awakening) with first arousing bodhi-mind, they are like the kalpa-gni and the fire of a firefly. However, when we arouse the mind of ferrying across others before ourselves, these two are not at all different.[3]

The kalpa-gni is the fire that burns the entire universe at the end of the kalpa of dissolution, one period of the cycle of four periods: 1) kalpa of creation, 2) kalpa of duration of created world, 3) kalpa of dissolution, and 4) kalpa of nothingness. Our bodhi-mind is tiny and weak like that of a firefly, and the great bodhisattvas bodhi-mind is like the fire that burns the entire universe. These two are so different, and yet, Dōgen says, these are the same fire; it is not a matter of the scale but the quality.

Further, Dōgen says:

To benefit all living beings is to help all living beings to arouse the mind of ferrying others before oneself. We should not expect to become a buddha by the power of arousing the mind of ferrying others before ourselves. Even if the virtue to become a buddha is ripened and is about to be completed, still we dedicate [the virtue] to all living beings to help them become buddha and attain the Way.

This is the basic nature of the first of the four bodhisattva vows: “Beings are numberless; I vow to free them.” Bodhisattvas aspire to become buddhas and enter nirvāṇa together with all beings. That means we vow not to enter nirvāṇa until all other beings enter nirvāṇa before us. We vow to stay in samsara as long as any beings are still there. All bodhisattvas vow to stay in samsara, working with other beings. Therefore, no bodhisattva ever crosses over the river to the other shore and enters nirvāṇa. The other shore is empty. When all bodhisattvas are working in samsara and helping each other, we can find nirvāṇa right here on this shore of samsara. Because of compassion, bodhisattvas never enter nirvāṇa, but because of wisdom, bodhisattvas do not abide in samsara. In Mahāyāna Buddhism, this way of life is called nirvāṇa without abiding (無住処涅槃, mujusho-nehan). That is why Dōgen continues:

However, after having aroused this mind, when we touch the great earth, everything [on the earth] becomes gold, and when we stir the great ocean, [the water in the ocean] becomes sweet dew. After this, when we grasp soil, stones, sands, or pebbles, we uphold the bodhi-mind. When we meet with water, foam, bubble, or fire, we intimately carry the bodhi-mind.

In Shōbōgenzō Sesshin-sesshō (Expounding Mind, Expounding Nature), Dōgen writes:

The Buddha Way is the Buddha Way at the time of first arousing bodhi-mind, and it is the Buddha Way at the time of attaining true awakening; [indeed] it is always the Buddha Way—in the beginning, in the middle, and at the end. For example, when a person travels ten thousand miles, the first step is a part of the thousand miles, and the thousandth step is also a part of the thousand miles. Although the first step and the thousandth step are different, both are equally parts of the thousand miles.

This is one of the reasons why Dōgen says that practice as a cause, and realization as a result, are one and the same. For mature bodhisattvas who are getting closer to the buddhahood, saving other beings might be a natural thing, but for immature bodhisattvas like us, who are not yet free from self-centered minds, it is extremely difficult to save others before we are saved ourselves. It sounds almost like self-negation.

No matter how difficult, and no matter how small, weak, and incomplete our practice may be, if we practice with such a spirit, we and the mature bodhisattvas such as Avalokiteśvara are the same. In other words, we are parts of the innumerable hands and eyes of Avalokiteśvara. In the poem, Dōgen says this is how (“the style”) buddha-ancestors have been practicing. We wish to continue this way of practice.

Forgetting self and freeing others
with the strength of merit and virtue,
My homeland’s spring color, peach blossom crimson.

It is difficult or almost impossible for us new and immature bodhisattvas to practice, if we think that we are the only bodhisattva and that all others are the beings we have to save. But if we think all others are also bodhisattvas, and others are also living in the same spirit, and I am one of the living beings for other bodhisattvas to help and support, then it is not such a difficult thing to live in such a spirit. This world becomes the world of helping and supporting each other. The basic teaching of Mahāyāna Buddhism is that we are living in the network of interconnectedness; we are all connected and supporting each other. Kōdō Sawaki Rōshi said, “Heaven and earth make offerings. Air, water, plants, animals, and human beings make offerings. All things make offerings to each other. It’s only within this circle of offering that we can live. Whether we appreciate this or not, it’s true.”[4] This circle of offering is our homeland.

Modern society looks like the world of separation and competition. It seems all people think only of their own personal or group benefit, and take advantage of others. In such a world, it is not possible to live with peace of mind. Our homeland would become like that of the realm of fighting spirits, hungry ghosts, or hell dwellers.

If we can do something for the sake of others’ benefit before our personal benefit, our world would change to the world of offering and supporting each other. That is the strength of merit and virtue which Dōgen talks about in the poem. In our helping and supporting each other, we can see the beauty of our homelands’ spring color, peach blossom crimson, and all other dharma flowers. The reference to peach blossoms in the spring came from the story of Lingyun Zhiqin (霊雲志勤, Reiun Shigon), who realized the Way upon seeing peach blossoms. He wrote a poem and presented it to his teacher Guishan Lingyou:

 For thirty years, I have been looking for the sword,
How many times have the leaves fallen and the branches grown anew?
Since once seeing the peach blossoms,
Up to the present, never once have I harbored any more doubts.[5]

They might have had peach blossoms at Eiheiji at this time. Dōgen combines the dharma and the seasonal beauty in front of their eyes.

— • —

[1] (Dōgen’s Extensive Record volume 7, dharma hall discourse 487, p.433) © 2010 Taigen Dan Leighton and Shohaku Okumura, Dōgen’s Extensive Record. Reprinted by arrangement with Wisdom Publications, Inc., www.wisdompubs.org.
[2] This is Okumura’s unpublished translation. Another translation is in Nirvāṇa Sutra: A Translation of Dharmakshema’s Northern Version (translation by Kosho Yamamoto), p. 341.
[3] Okumura’s unpublished translation.
[4] The Zen Teaching of Homeless Kodo (Kōshō Uchiyama and Shohaku Okumura, Wisdom Publications, 2014), p.179.
[5] This is Okumura’s unpublished translation.

— • —

Translation and commentary by Shōhaku Okumura Roshi.

— • —

For further study:
See Dōgen’s Extensive Record.

> More of Dōgen Zenji’s Chinese Poems


Copyright©2022 Sanshin Zen Community

The Wheel of Food and the Wheel of Dharma  

Copyright©2022 Misaki C. Kido

Dōgen’s Chinese Poems (51)
A Wooden Ladle Striking in the Place We Cannot Avoid

謝典座」(「典座に謝す」)
雲門三昧現塵塵 (雲門の三昧塵塵を現じ、)
能轉食輪兼法輪 (能く食輪と法輪とを轉ず)
滿桶擔來敎滿鉢 (桶に滿たして擔い來りて鉢を滿たしむ。)
世尊授記用來新 (世尊の授記、用い來って新たなり。)

Yunmen’s every-atom samādhi can turn into
both the wheel of food and the wheel of Dharma.
Bring a full container and fill the [monks’] bowls.
The World-Honored One’s confirmation [of the tenzo’s practice] has been employed, and yet is fresh.[1]

This is verse 50 in Kuchūgen and a part of Dharma Hall Discourse (上堂, jōdō) 138 in Volume 2 of Eihei Kōroku. This discourse was given “In Appreciation of the [Outgoing] Tenzo [Chief Cook].” After a long speech on the practice of being a tenzo, Dōgen Zenji was silent for a while and then recited this verse. This verse in Manzan’s version and Monkaku’s version are the same.

A Wooden Ladle Striking in the Place We Cannot Avoid

This title of the discourse in Dōgen’s Extensive Record does not make sense when we read only this verse.[2] “A wooden ladle” and “the place we cannot avoid” appear earlier in his discourse. Please read the discourse itself for these references. Dōgen Zenji gave this dharma hall discourse in the 12th month, 1245. Dōgen and his sangha had moved from Fukakusa near Kyoto to Echizen in the summer of 1243. In 1244, their new monastery Daibutsuji was built and they moved in there in the fall of the year. After spending the winter, they had the first summer practice period in 1245.

Dōgen gave Dharma Hall Discourse 136 on the occasion of Buddha’s Enlightenment Day (rohatsu). Before the New Year, it seems they changed the monastic officers’ positions. Discourse 137 is in appreciation of the outgoing director (kansu, 監寺), Discourse 138 is in appreciation of the outgoing tenzo (典座), and Discourse 139 is on inviting the incoming director and tenzo.

After writing Shōbōgenzō Ōsakusendaba (A King asked for Sendaba) on the 23rd day of the 10th month in 1245, it seems that Dōgen did not produce any writing for eight months, until the 15th day of the 6th month in 1246. The 15th day of the 6th month in 1246 was the date Chiji-shingi (知事清規, Pure Standards for the Temple Administrators) was presented and also the date that Daibutsuji was renamed as Eiheiji. Probably during this eight-month period, Dōgen was writing Chiji-shingi, educating his monks in the monastic system, and enabling them to work following his instructions as written in the text. When he felt that the monastic system was established and had begun to function in the way he wished, I suppose he felt it was an appropriate time to change the name of the monastery, to Eiheiji. (Eihei (永平) was the name of the Chinese era when Buddhism was officially transmitted to China.) These three dharma discourses were given during the eight-month period in 1245 – 1246. In the section concerning the tenzo within Chiji-shingi, Dōgen uses the same phrases as in the second and the third lines of this verse.[3]

At the beginning of Discourse 138, Dōgen says, “I, Daibutsu, was the first to transmit the Dharma [procedures and attitude] for the tenzo to temples in Japan.”[4] Among the various temple administrative positions, tenzo was particularly important for him. As he wrote in Tenzo-kyōkun, his encounter with the old tenzo of Ayuwang monastery right after arriving in China in 1223 was an eye-opening experience. The conversation with another old tenzo he met at Tiantong monastery was also an unforgettable event in his lifetime.[5]

Yunmen’s every-atom samādhi can turn into
both the wheel of food and the wheel of Dharma.

In the first line, Dōgen introduces a kōan, Yunmen’s Every Atom Samadhi. We find this kōan in Case 50 of the Blue Cliff Record and Case 99 of The Book of Serenity. The main case is very short.

 A monk asked Yun Men, “What is every atom samadhi?”
Men said, “Food in the bowl, water in the bucket.”[6]

“Every atom samadhi” is Cleary’s translation of jinjin-zanmai (塵塵三昧). The name of this samadhi came from Avataṃsaka Sūtra:

They enter concentration on one atom
And accomplish concentration on all atoms,
And yet that particle doesn’t increase:
In one are manifests inconceivable lands.[7]

In the Chinese translation of The Avataṃsaka Sūtra, jin (塵) is an abbreviation of mijin (微塵). According to a Japanese Buddhist dictionary, mijin is a translation of the Sanskrit word anu, the smallest particle we can see with our eyes. Atom is paramanu (Jp. gokumi 極微). When seven paramanu get together, it becomes anu. According to the Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism, various schools had their own theories about the smallest particle in their respective Abhidharma systems, but Nāgarjuna’s Madhyamaka school negated the existence of such an atom as substance.[8] Thomas Cleary translated this word as “atom” in his translations of the kōan collections and in The Flower Ornament Sutra. The Sutra says that a Buddha can enter one atom in samadhi, and at the same time, the Buddha is in all atoms. This is an expression of the idea of interconnectedness: one part and all things within the entirety of Indra’s Net interpenetrate each other. This is called Indra’s Net Samadhi. Dōgen writes in Shōbōgenzō Hokke-ten-hokke (Dharma Flowers Turn Dharma Flowers):

When we see minute particles, it is not that we don’t see the [entire] Dharma world. When we verify the [entire] Dharma world, it is not that we don’t verify the minute particles.[9]

In Tenzo-kyōkun, he writes:

Pick a single blade of grass and erect a sanctuary for the jewel king; enter a single atom and turn the great wheel of the teaching.[10]

Commonly, the kitchen is not considered an important part of a monastery. In ancient times, because they cooked with firewood, the walls were black, and the kitchen was usually a dark place. The Buddha hall, Dharma hall, and Sangha hall (Monks’ hall) are more important and usually much larger and magnificent buildings. The tenzo is working in the kitchen like an atom, but he turns the great dharma wheel that penetrates the entire dharma world.

A monk asked Yunmen, what is this samadhi in which a buddha can be in one particle and at the same time in all particles. Yunmen’s answer is simple, “Rice in the bowl, water in the bucket.” He picked day-to-day, concrete examples from daily monastic life. Since rice in the bowl and water in the bucket have something to do with the tenzo’s work in the kitchen and offering the food to the assembly, Dōgen uses this kōan in his speech to appreciate what the outgoing tenzo has been doing.

“The wheel of food” is a translation of jikirin (食輪) and “the wheel of Dharma” is horin (法輪). Of course, “dharma wheel” is Buddha’s teachings as the expressions of the Dharma he awakened to. It seems the word jikirin was originally used in the Vinaya. When a monastery was established, two important aspects were how to turn the dharma wheel and how to maintain the monastic community as an administration. In the common usage of these terms, often the aspects of turning the dharma wheel and administration are considered to be two separate aspects of monastic life, which sometimes contradict each other. If the abbot is tough and the practice style is strict in order to keep the pure dharma wheel turning, not many monks stay at the monastery, and the monastery may also lose the support of lay people. In order to keep the wheel of food turning extensively, the abbot needs to be popular with lay society such as the emperor, aristocrats, high-class government officers, rich merchants, etc. To do so, the monastery may need to hold popular events or ceremonies for lay supporters; then sincere monks may leave the monastery.

But here, Dōgen is saying that in the tenzo’s work, both the wheel of food and the wheel of dharma are being turned simultaneously. These two wheels are not contradictory at all.

For him, the wheel of dharma and the wheel of food are both turned in the monks’ practice. In Chiji-shingi, Dōgen writes:

What is called the mind of the Way is not to abandon or scatter about the great Way of the buddha ancestors, but deeply to protect and esteem their great Way. Therefore having abandoned fame and gain and departed your homeland, consider gold as excrement and honor as spittle, and without obscuring the truth or obeying falsehoods, maintain the regulations of right and wrong and entrust everything to the guidelines for conduct. After all, not to sell cheaply or debase the worth of the ordinary tea and rice of the buddha ancestors’ house is exactly the mind of the Way.[11]

In Tenzo kyōkun, he quotes the Zennen-shingi:

“Just serve the community and do not worry about poverty. If you do not have a limited heart you will have boundless fortune.”[12]

Bring a full container and fill the [monks’] bowls.
The World-Honored One’s confirmation [of the tenzo’s practice] has been employed, and yet is fresh.

Dōgen uses Yunmen’s answer regarding every atom samadhi in the third line to describe the tenzo’s work at each meal. The tenzo and the kitchen crew bring cooked food to the Monks’ hall and offer it to the monks. This is the actual turning of the food wheel at the same time as the dharma wheel. Right within this activity, the tenzo is actualizing the interconnectedness of practice in the kitchen and practice in the zendo.

“The World-Honored One’s confirmation” is the Buddha’s prediction (juki, 授記) of a certain person becoming a buddha in a future lifetime. This is an important concept in The Lotus Sutra, in which Shakyamuni Buddha gave the prediction to all of his disciples and other people that they would attain buddhahood sometime in the future.

In Shōbōgenzō Juki (Prediction), Dōgen Zenji writes:

We should not study that we become buddhas after receiving the prediction; we should not study that we receive the prediction after becoming buddhas. At the time of conferring prediction, there is making buddha; at the time of conferring the prediction, there is practice … We should certainly know that the prediction actualizes the self; the prediction is the self that is actualized.[13]

For example, in his past life, when his name was Sumedha, Shakyamuni met and received the prediction from Dīpankara Buddha. However, we are living after Shakyamuni’s death and before Maitreya Buddha’s birth, which is the period without a buddha. Therefore, it is not possible to receive a prediction. However, Dōgen says, our practice with sincere heart for the sake of the Dharma is itself meeting Buddha and receiving the prediction

— • —

[1] (Dōgen’s Extensive Record volume 2, dharma hall discourse 138, p.167) © 2010 Taigen Dan Leighton and Shohaku Okumura, Dōgen’s Extensive Record. Reprinted by arrangement with Wisdom Publications, Inc., www.wisdompubs.org.
[2] The titles of the dharma hall discourses in Dōgen’s Extensive Record were made and added by the translators. In the original text, those titles do not exist.
[3] Dōgen’s Pure Standards for the Zen Community (translated by Taigen Dan Leighton & Shohaku Okumura, SUNNY, 1996), p. 178.
[4] Dōgen’s Extensive Record, p. 166.
[5] Dōgen’s Pure Standards for Zen Community, p.40.
[6] Thomas Cleary’s translation (The Blue Cliff Record, Shambhala, 1977) p. 294. Another translation by him is in case 99, Yunmen’s “Bowl and Bucket” in Book of Serenity (Lindisfarne Press 1988), p.425.
[7] The Flower Ornament Scripture: A Translation of the Avataṃsaka Sūtra, (Thomas Cleary) p.339
[8] Vasubandhu’s comment on the idea of paramanu is in his The Treatise in Twenty Verses on Consciousness Only (BDK English Tripitaka, Three Texts on Consciousness Only, (Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, 1999), p.398-p.400. All
[9] Okumura’s unpublished translation.
[10] Dōgen’s Pure Standards for the Zen Community, p. 37.
[11] Dōgen’s Pure Standards for the Zen Community, p. 156.
[12] Dōgen’s Pure Standards for the Zen Community, p.44.
[13] Okumura’s unpublished translation

— • —

Translation and commentary by Shōhaku Okumura Roshi.

— • —

For further study:
See Dōgen’s Extensive Record.

> More of Dōgen Zenji’s Chinese Poems


Copyright©2022 Sanshin Zen Community